Romania : noul Eldorado pentru cumpatorii de terenuri agricole.


Acesta era titlul unui articol publicat acum ceva timp de Le Figaro, si care ne arata, inca o data, ca 6% din terenul agricol al Romaniei a fost deja acaparat (sub diferite forme juridice) de societati straine, sub paravanul unor societati romanesti, totul sub ochii functionarilor romani.

De asemenea, va recomandam si un studiu recent publicat care ne prezinta scandalul mocnit care zace de mult timp in spatele acestor afaceri cu teren agricol. Documentarul il puteti descarca aici.

 

La Roumanie : nouvel eldorado pour l’achat de terres agricoles

La ruée vers l’Est! L’accaparement des terres agricoles concerne toute l’Europe et notamment la Roumanie, cinquième pays de l’Union en termes de superficie agricole. Un phénomène qui serait en expansion, selon les auteurs de l’étude: «Land concentration, land grabbing (…) in Europe» conduite par la Coordination européenne Via Campesina (ECVC) qui fédère plusieurs organisations paysannes européennes dont Ecoruralis en Roumanie. Malgré la loi qui interdit aux investisseurs étrangers d’acquérir des terres agricoles roumaines, 6 % des surfaces arables du pays, soit un peu moins d’un million d’hectares, sont exploitées par des multinationales comme Rabobank, Generali ou ASI Europe Gmbh. «Pour contourner la loi, ces investisseurs internationaux créent une société locale sous l’œil bienveillant de fonctionnaires, ce qui leur donne le droit d’acheter ou de louer des terres agricoles pour les exploiter ensuite», note Stéphanie Roth, coordinatrice d’Ecoruralis. «Les terres cultivables représentent un nouvel or pour les investisseurs internationaux, poursuit Attila Szocs, ingénieur agronome en charge de la PAC au sein d’Ecoruralis en Roumanie. Quelque 60 % des terres agricoles cultivables sont constituées de chernosium, de belles terres noires où il est facile de doubler les rendements.»

Main-d’œuvre bon marché

En outre, financièrement, il s’agit d’un investissement très rentable tant à l’achat qu’à la location. «Actuellement, le prix d’achat des terres agricoles en Roumanie oscille entre 2000 et 4000 euros l’hectare, soit 10 fois moins chères qu’au Danemark ou en Hollande, deux pays qui manquent cruellement de terres cultivables», fait remarquer Dan Cismas, coprésident d’Ecoruralis et exploitant sur 14 hectares.

Ensuite, pour exploiter ces terres, la main-d’œuvre est très bon marché. «Le salaire minimum est de l’ordre 160 euros par mois et peut atteindre 200 euros avec les heures supplémentaires», explique Attila Szocs. Enfin, avant même d’avoir semé la moindre graine, ces terres rapportent 130 euros d’aides directes européennes par hectare. Le paiement de la PAC a contribué à l’essor de ce phénomène qui favorise la spéculation sur le prix des terres. «Le système de subventions de la PAC favorise explicitement les grandes exploitations, marginalise les petites fermes et bloque l’installation d’agriculteurs potentiels, dénonce Dan Cismas. La moitié des subventions de la PAC destinées à la Roumanie vont à seulement 1 % des agriculteurs du pays qui disposent d’exploitation de 500 hectares et plus.» Une distorsion que le commissaire européen à l’Agriculture, le Roumain Dacian Ciolos, veut essayer d’atténuer dans la nouvelle PAC 2014-2020 par le plafonnement progressif des aides.

 

Land concentration, land grabbing and people’s struggles in Europe

= textul complet aici =

Across romania, natural resources have become the object of greed and massive investments.
regardless of the resource exploited, peasants’ lands are being grabbed and transformed, with effects
that are far-reaching and often irrevocable. lands are being grabbed for many purposes – agricultural,
mining, energy, tourism, water resources, speculation – and entail not only control of the resources but
also the power to decide on their use. This process is weakening rural economies and preventing the
development of a dynamic rural sector.
The impact of massive land investments throughout rural romania is destroying long-term rural development. land grabbing

is understood as using large-scale capital to capture control of physical

resources as well the power to decide how and for what purposes they will be used. it is closely linked
to and reinforces the phenomenon of rural exodus. it is also part of land markets as well as the liberalisation

of the agro-food industries. rural areas are gradually being transformed into landscapes for the
industrial production of agricultural raw materials, to the detriment of human-scale agriculture, which
is still important in romania in creating jobs and good quality food. The growing phenomenon of land
grabbing is pushing up the price of land, putting it beyond the reach of smaller local farmers. it further
poses a serious concern for the entire society, as lands, natural resources, wealth and information are
gradually concentrated in a few hands. This concentration of power goes against romanian political,
economic and food sovereignty. in this sense, the impact of land grabbing goes way beyond the territory
included in the land deals.
land grabbing is complex. in romania, people are not forced to leave their land. The rural population,
elderly and vulnerable, is generally enthusiastic when massive investments arrive and agree to lease
their land; agro-industrial corporations settle legally, through lease or purchase of land. However, the
apparent legality is like a velvet glove disguising the aggressiveness of the iron fist driving the phenomenon. it is difficult to know how much of romania’s land is affected. although there are no official
statistics, it has been reported that around 700,000 to 800,000 hectares (ha), or 6% of romanian
farmland, could already be in the hands of transnational corporations (Tncs).

 

This is probably an
underestimate, given the diversity of capital and investment schemes. Furthermore, the issue cannot
be viewed only in quantitative terms. it is more relevant to observe the patterns of firms’ settlement
in rural communities and their qualitative impacts, since these are what directly affect the population

n that sense, land grabbing is not directly dependent on the origin of the capital. Whether romanian
or foreign, corporations monopolising the land develop activities that, in addition to concentrating land
ownership, are harmful to the local environment and to the economic wellbeing and socio-cultural
development of rural communities. Moreover, they conspire with the government authorities to steer
legislation and development programmes in their favour, exploiting the vulnerability of the population
and institutional weaknesses.
land grabbing in romania is increasingly conditioned by national and european political and legislative
frameworks that focus on productivist agriculture and the liberalisation of the food trade – providing
the apparatus for large-scale land investments. indeed, romanian government policy is openly directed
towards the development of productivist agro-export agriculture and the Treaty of accession to the
european Union (eU) requires romania’s land market to be open to foreign buyers. land grabbing is
also nurtured through the massive subsidies directed towards large-scale agriculture by the government and the eU. given the lack of support for peasant agriculture and coherent rural development, the
socioeconomic context of rural areas is attractive for large investments. rural exodus is intense, and
when an agro-investor finds a vulnerable and uninformed population, the latter is generally receptive to
the idea of renting out land in return for additional income.

 

Cititi textul complet despre Romania

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