Turcia cere sa-i fie inapoiate artefactele antice parti din Mausoleul din Halicarnuss, pastrate in British Museum


Turcia va cere  Muzeului Britanic sa- i fie inapoiate artefacele antice, parti din Mausoleul din Halicarnuss, una din cele 7 minuni ale lumii. Potrivit the Guardian, acest gest se poate constitui intr-un act de repatriere a unui obiect de arta sau intr-un dezastru pentru marile muzee.

Ma intreb ce s-ar intampla daca si altii vor face la fel, ma gandesc mai ales la Egipt …

Cu toate acestea, este un gest firesc ca acestea sa se intoarca la muzeele de unde apartin. Daca ati vizita Sminthonian la Washington veti vedea ca de fapt acolo au fost adunate bogatiile istorice ale lumii.

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Mausoleul din Halicarnuss se crede ca a fost terminat in anul 353 I.C., la 3 ani dupa moartea regelui Mausollus.

Locatie: Orasul Halicarnassus (Bodrumul de azi) in Marea Egee, in sud-vestul Turciei.

Denumirea de mausoleu vine de la numele regelui persan Mausollus care guverna provincia Caria. Mausoleul de la Halicarnassus a fost construit de catre Artemisia, sotia si sora regelui Mausollus, in memoria acestuia.

Timp de 16 secole acesta constructie a supravietuit timpului. Se crede ca a fost distrus intre 1000 A.D. si 1400 A.D. de un cutremur, cel mai probabil.

In 1494, cavalerii Sfantului Ioana din Malta au construit un castel in timpul cruciadelor, castel care exista si astazi in Bodrum si la a carei constructie au folosit blocurile de piatra si marmura din mausoleu.

Artemisia, sotia si sora lui Mausollus, l-a angajat pe arhitectul Pythius pentru realizarea proiectului.

Planul de baza al cladirii era un templu imes, cu o baza rectanglulara cu o lungime de 40 de m si o latime de 30 de m, peste care era construita o piramida cu 24 de trepte.

Inaltimea totala a mausoleului era de 45 m compusa din 20 m baza cu trepte, 12 m podiumul cu coloane, 7 m piramida cu cele 24 de trepte si 6 m statuia din varf care reprezenta un car cu 4 cai. Fundatia era un podium cu trepte decorat cu statui.

Camera mortuara era construita din alabastru alb si decorata cu aur. Era localizata pe podium si inconjurata cu coloane.

Faima acestei constructii consta in multimea statuilor cu care era decorata: oameni, lei, cai si alte animale. In fiecare colt, luptatori pe cai strajuiau mormantul.

Fiecare parte a mausoleului era decorata cu fresce care prezentau scene despre luptele grecilor.

Intre fiecare dintre coloanele podiumului strajuiau statui. Astazi, numai cateva statui au fost recuperate si pot fi vazute in Camera Mausoleului la British Museum, excavate de Sir Charles Thomas Newton

. Exact acestea sunt cele pe care Turcia le cere acum inapoi.

Ankara has turned to the European Court of Human Rights in its attempt to reclaim British Museum sculptures that were once part of Turkey’s Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world.

The dispute is set to become a “test case for the repatriation of art from one nation to another, a potential disaster for the world’s museums,” the Guardian reported.

The ancient structure was a 45-meter-high tomb created between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus, the current-day resort city of Bodrum in southwestern Turkey. Four horse chariots of marble were perched on top of the superstructure, which was designed by Greek architects.

A statue from the Mausoleum of Halikarnassos (Photo from wikipedia.org)

A horse’s head sculpture was also among the artifacts acquired in the mid-19th century by the British Museum, which Turkish activists want returned to their original site, the Guardian reported.

Istanbul lawyer Remzi Kazmaz told the Observer that 30 lawyers will be acting on behalf of the town of Bodrum alongside district and provincial governors in a lawsuit that will be filed in the European court on January 30.

“We thank the British authorities and the British Museum for accommodating and preserving our historical and cultural heritage for the last years. However, the time has come for these assets to be returned to their place of origin,” Kazmaz said.

A petition with nearly 120,000 signatures has reportedly been prepared, along with a documentary on how Turkey lost the ancient treasures.

“We do not believe that the artifacts were removed legally,” Kazmaz explained.

The mausoleum, which overlooked the city of Halicarnassus for years, was eventually ruined by a series of earthquakes. It is believed that some of the sculptures were then taken by crusaders at Bodrum. In the 19th century, a British consul obtained several of the statues that are now on display at the British Museum.

Doua statui din marmura din Mausoleul din Halikarnassos. (c) photo: The Trustees of the British Museum

“These pieces were acquired during the course of two British initiatives, both with firmans – legal permits issued by the Ottoman authorities – that granted permission for the excavation of the site and removal of the material from the site … to the British Museum, “ a British Museum spokesperson said.

Via RT

The Guardian:

Human rights legislation that has overturned the convictions of terrorists and rapists could now rob the British Museum of sculptures created for one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

A Turkish challenge in the European court of human rights will be a test case for the repatriation of art from one nation to another, a potential disaster for the world’s museums.

Despite criticism of their own country’s human rights record, Turkish campaigners are turning to human rights law – a dramatic move to reclaim sculptures that once adorned the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, an ancient wonder along with sites such as the hanging gardens of Babylon and Egypt’s pyramids.

Greek sculptors in 350BC created a 40-metre-high monument, crowned by a colossal four-horse chariot on a stepped pyramid. A magnificent horse’s head is among sculptures acquired by the British Museum in the mid-19th century, which campaigners want returned to their original site – Bodrum in south-west Turkey.

An Istanbul lawyer, Remzi Kazmaz, told the Observer that a lawsuit will be filed at the European court on 30 January and that 30 lawyers are acting on behalf of the town of Bodrum as well as district and provincial governors, the Turkish ministry of culture and other bodies.

Kazmaz said: “We thank the British authorities and the British Museum for accommodating and preserving our historical and cultural heritage for the last years. However, the time has come for these assets to be returned to their place of origin … Preparations for formal requests are taking place now.”

A petition with 118,000 signatures has been organised and the Strasbourg court will be shown a documentary on how Turkey lost its ancient treasure.

Kazmaz said: “We do not believe that the artefacts were removed legally.”

But he declined to elaborate on the planned legal arguments: “The lawsuit is a sensitive subject so, while I can confirm that the information you have is correct, we have to be understandably cautious”.

Gwendolen Morgan, a human rights lawyer with Bindmans LLP, suggested that “the most likely line of attack” will be a breach by the UK of article 1, 1st protocol of the European convention of human rights, which states: “Every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions.”

She said: “I suspect they’ll use the litigation to ramp up the moral pressure on the British government … So it’s quite a powerful campaigning tool … How this case will be interpreted by the European court of human rights will also be informed by the domestic law in force in the 1850s in the Ottoman empire when the mausoleum was taken by the British Museum. However, the European Convention on Human Rights is only in force since 1954 so there is a serious timing problem. The Turkish legal team may argue that because the Convention is a living instrument, it should be interpreted in light of current international law including the UNESCO heritage conventions and other Governmental statements about not depriving countries of their cultural patrimony. Much will turn on what was agreed at the time the statues were removed.”

She joked: “I must go to the British Museum again soon before they [the sculptures] vanish.”

Norman Palmer, a leading QC specialising in cultural property law, said: “I have not heard of it [human rights] being used to raise a claim for the specific restitution of particular tangible objects … This would be a novel claim.”

The case will be keenly watched by Greece, which is seeking the return of the Parthenon marbles, and Nigeria, which wants the Benin bronzes back, and other nations seeking the repatriation of cultural artefacts.

A senior source in Greece said: “Greece will be following this with interest.”

The mausoleum – built for Mausolus, king of Caria – is believed to have collapsed after a medieval earthquake. Some of its sculptures were taken by crusaders to their castle at Bodrum, from where they were recovered in 1846 by the British smbassador at Constantinople and presented to the British Museum. Others were retrieved in the 1850s during site excavations by the museum.

A British Museum spokeswoman said: “We have not heard anything about the legal case … so we can’t comment.” But, she added: “These pieces were acquired during the course of two British initiatives, both with firmans – legal permits issued by the Ottoman authorities – that granted permission for the excavation of the site and removal of the material from the site … to the British Museum.”

Turkey is also pursuing claims against other institutions worldwide, including the Getty Museum in Los Angeles.

The Guardian

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